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dc.contributor.author Tray, Dennis
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-09T04:24:46Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-09T04:24:46Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.citation Dennis de Tray; 2016; THE INSTITUTIONAL MIDDLE-INCOME TRAP; GSE; EURASIAN HIGHER EDUCATION LEADERS’ FORUM 2016; http://nur.nu.edu.kz/handle/123456789/2352 ru_RU
dc.identifier.uri http://nur.nu.edu.kz/handle/123456789/2352
dc.description.abstract Most students of international development are familiar with the term “middleincome trap,” which refers to the penchant for countries to reach middle-income status and then stagnate1. In this short note I am proposing a similar and related phenomenon: the “institutional middle-income trap” or “institutional reform trap” whereby institutional development in middle-income developing countries starts out well but then stagnates, or does not reach its goal – which is usually to develop a world class institution. Universities are a particular example of this phenomenon. These observations are based on extensive institution building experience in 10 developing countries, more than half of which are classified as middle-income. They are also initial thoughts on which I plan to build in the future ru_RU
dc.language.iso en ru_RU
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ *
dc.subject The fifth Eurasian Higher Education Leaders’ Forum ru_RU
dc.subject Higher Education ru_RU
dc.subject middle-income trap ru_RU
dc.type Article ru_RU

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